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Absolute zero is the temperature where molecules cease to move.
It is the lowest temperature possible and Absolute Zero equals 0° Kelvin = -273.15° Centigrade/Celsius, and 0° Rankin = -459.67° Fahrenheit.
The Fahrenheit Scale is based on the Rømer scale.
Fahrenheit's zero degree mark is the freezing point of brine made of ammonium chloride salt.
Its scale is aproximatly 4 degrees for each degree in the Rømer scale and adjusted slightly to eliminate fractions at the freezing point
and boiling point of water.
The Fahrenheit Scale was established in 1724.
Melting point of ice
The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which the substance changes state from solid to liquid.
It is equal to freezing point (the temperature at which a substance changes state from liquid to solid).
The melting point of ice (freezing point of water) at the normal pressure 1 atm (101.325 kPa) is 0 centigrade = 32°F.
Many of the temperature scales use this temperature as one of their reference points
The Rømer scale is based on the freezing point of water.
The Rømer scale was originally based on having a zero degree mark at the freezing point of brine made of ammonium
chloride salt with a spread of 60 degrees from the freezing point of the brine to the boiling point of pure water.
It was then adjusted slightly so that the freezing point of pure water was at exactly 7.5 degrees and the boiling point at 60 degrees.
The Rømer scale was proposed in 1701.
Celsius / Centigrade Scale
Centigrade is from the Latin "centum" translated as 100 and "gradus" translated as "steps".
It is based on two temperature points with zero being at the melting point of water and 100 at the boiling point of water,
and has 100 evenly graduated intervals between these two points.
Known as centigrade from 1754 to 1948 when it was renamed to Celsius after its founder Anders Celsius.
The Réaumur scale is based on the freezing and boiling points of water.
The Réaumur temperature scale is based the freezing and boiling points of water set to 0 and 80 degrees respectively.
The scale is named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who first proposed it in 1730.
The scale originally relied on alcohol thermometers, but later was adjusted to base its 80 degrees on thermometers made with mercury.
The Delisle scale is based on the freezing and boiling points of water.
The Delisle thermometers generally had 2400 graduations, appropriate to winters in St. Petersburg.
In 1738 Josias Weitbrecht (1702–47) recalibrated the Delisle thermometer with 0 degrees as the boiling point and
150 degrees as the freezing point of water. The Delisle thermometers were useed in Russia for almost 100 years.
The Newton scale is based on melting point of snow and boiling point of water.
The Newton scale was devised by Isaac Newton around 1700.
Newton found that the volume of linseed oil expanded by 7.25% when heated from the temperature of melting snow to that of boiling water.
Zero on this scale is defined as melting snow and 33 degrees as the boiling point of water.
Newton coined the term thermometer as the name of his measuring device for temperature.
The Electron Volt scale is based on the Kelvin scale.
The Electron Volt scale, based on the Kelvin scale, where 1 eV = 11,605 degrees Kelvin.
It is defined as the total amount of kinetic energy gained by an unbound electron as it is accelerated through a
potential difference of one volt.
Electronvolts is used in the field of plasma physics which deals with phenomena of an electromagnetic nature that involve very high temperatures,
and is customary to express these temperatures in electronvolts (eV) or kiloelectronvolts (keV), where 1 eV = 11,605 K.
Kelvin is based on the Celsius / Centigrade scale.
Kelvin follows the Centigrade scale increments and is adjusted so that its zero point is at absolute zero
which is defined as -273.15 degrees Centigrade.
Named after Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), and associated to his paper written in 1848.
Rankine is based on the Fahrenheit scale.
Rankine uses the Fahrenheit scale and is adjusted so that its zero point is at absolute zero which is defined as -459.67 degrees Fahrenheit.
Named after William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed the scale in 1859.